Marine Energy

Marine Energy

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Another source of sustainable energy is hydropower as in tidal or marine energy. This source is completely different from hydroelectric energy, or in other words, electrical energy, which is obtained from the kinetic energy of running water or the potential energy of water behind dams, and it can be divided into two general types:

Tidal Energy
Wave Energy

Both of these sources are considered as renewable and even sustainable sources of electricity supply. Although both of these sources are not yet fully recognized and can not be used in all parts of the world, they are still clean and reliable sources of electricity generation. In the following, we will briefly introduce each of the two cases of marine/tidal energy supply.

Wave Energy

Marine energy is sometimes called oceanic energy or hydrokinetic energy. Marine energy is the type of energy that is carried by sea or ocean waves, tides, water salinity, and even temperature differences in different parts of the sea and can be extracted with the help of appropriate equipment. The ocean is a natural battery with a high capacity of solar energy, and this temperature difference of two different points can cause convective and kinetic currents that with the right equipment can supply the electricity we need.

The movement of water in the sea or ocean can store high kinetic energy, and some of this energy can be used to supply energy, especially electricity. The main difference between wave energy and marine energy is that in the first case, the same waves and movements of surface water of the sea or ocean are usually used to supply electricity, but in the marine energy sector, various forms of water movement can be used, even deep sea and ocean convective currents.

Or even vortex currents can be used to supply power. Currently, the available data suggest that the power generation capacity of ocean temperature changes, its saline content, tidal movements, convective currents, waves, and vortices will be about 20,000 to 80,000 TWh per year. The available data on electricity supply from marine energy can be summarized in the following table:

Energy Form

Annual Generation (TWh)



Marine Current Power


Osmotic Power/Salinity Gradient


Ocean Thermal/Thermal Gradient


Wave Energy


Indonesia, as an archipelago country that the ocean covers about three-quarters of its territory, has 49 gigawatts of potential marine energy plants in operation and is estimated to have about 727 gigawatts of production capacity in theory.

The oceans and seas are a vast, untouched and pure source of energy. This energy appears in the form of surface or subsurface waves, convective currents, currents due to salinity or thermal gradients, and can be extracted with the help of appropriate equipment and converted into consumable forms of energy such as electrical or mechanical energy. The United States is currently one of the pioneers of marine energy in the extraction of energy from water in coastal areas and its operations include:

In areas where water waves are flowing, the energy of the waves is extracted.
Water turbines are installed in coastal areas and extract the required energy during tides.
In deep, tropical waters, heat exchangers are installed to convert ocean heat into electricity.
Electric turbines are installed along the flowing roaring rivers to harness their kinetic energy.
In areas where high convective currents are found, suitable turbines are installed to take advantage of these movements and high speed currents.

The sun’s rays radiate to the surface of the seas, creating temperature gradients and conveying heat currents between the water layers. The interaction between the wind and the surface of the water also makes waves, and the greater the distance between the waves, the larger the waves will be. Simply put, tidal energy technology can be explored nearshore and offshore. Wave energy converters can also be designed to operate in specific water depth conditions: deep water, medium depth water, and shallow water. The design of the equipment uses the energy of the waves based on factors such as the location and physical characteristics of the source.

It should be noted that despite the sustainability of this type of energy, its potential to pollute the environment should not be forgotten. In general, careful selection of the site and location of the ocean and marine energy operations is a key factor in minimizing the environmental impact of energy exploitation and extraction systems.

Companies active in the field of marine energy exploitation, including Zirsakht Tadbir Arian Company, taking into account factors and constraints such as the protection of coastal and scenic fronts and the protection of areas where wave energy systems can change the pattern of sediment flow on the ocean floor; They choose the best place to extract marine energy. Economically, marine energy systems are struggling to compete with traditional energy sources. However, by working on energy extraction equipment, experts have been able to reduce marine energy production costs to some extent by increasing the efficiency of these devices.

European marine energy experts believe that marine energy extraction devices will eventually become a profitable market. When these equipment are built and the relevant costs are paid, their operation and maintenance costs will be very low since the fuel they use (seawater) is free.

Tidal Energy

Tidal energy is a form of energy that is converted from the roaring waves of rivers, seas and lakes to other forms of energy, such as electrical energy, with the help of appropriate equipment. Although this method of energy production is not yet quite common, a bright future is foreseen for it, especially in areas with a lot of running water. It should be noted that waves are more predictable rather than wind or solar energy. Among renewable energy sources, tidal energy has traditionally suffered from relatively high costs and limited operating sites. The limitation of places with high tidal intervals or high discharges has also contributed to this limitation.

However, many recent technical improvements and advances, both in design (e.g., design of tidal lagoons) and in the technology sector of equipment such as turbines (eg, new axial turbines and cross-flow turbines) show that efficiency and the availability of tidal and wave energy has been beyond our imagination. And by using this energy, costs can be reduced to such an extent that this energy source is economically competitive with other sources.

Energy production from marine/tidal technologies has increased by about 16% in 2018 and by about 13% in 2019. In order to achieve further cost reduction and development in larger comparisons, it is necessary to adopt more policies based on the development and research of this energy extraction equipment. One of the largest tidal power plants which opened in 2011 is located in South Korea. Siwa Power Station has wall-to-wall defense barriers with 10 turbines and can generate an average of 254 MW of electricity. In short, the energy of the waves is extracted from the tides of the oceans or seas. Tide is a phenomenon that results from changes in the gravitational pull of celestial bodies.

These forces create corresponding movements or currents in the world’s oceans. This phenomenon causes periodic changes in sea level that are different from the rotation of the earth itself. These changes are very regular and predictable due to the constant pattern of the Earth’s rotation and the Moon’s orbit around the Earth and can turn tidal energy into a reliable and stable source of electrical or mechanical energy supply.

Tidal energy can be divided into four general categories:

Zirsakht Tadbir Arian Company, as one of the pioneers in the field of renewable energy, has always sought to increase efficiency to improve marine energy extraction. The company with the help of active experts in this field and with the benefit of the latest technology and modern equipment can implement various projects of hydropower/Marine/Tidal utilization and bring it into operation.

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