Leachate Treatment

Leachate Treatment

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Leachate Processing

Leachate is basically any type of liquid that passes through different materials and while passing through those materials can extract and dissolve the available soluble or suspended solids. Of course, this type of liquid can also absorb other non-solid substances present in the waste and garbage and form the final form of leachate. In the environmental sciences, leachate is considered a liquid that may have absorbed toxic and dangerous substances and then enter them into the environment with it. In situations where the operating environment and location of the waste is small or narrow, the leachate is any liquid material that is discharged from the ground or collected material and can contain a significant concentration of undesirable substances that it has absorbed while passing through the waste.

One of the methods of leachate management is the use of landfills. In older landfills, where no membrane is embedded in the landfill and the underlying geology is not designed for the landfill, leachate is free to leave the waste and flow directly into the groundwater. In such cases, high concentrations of leachate are often found in the surrounding springs, which can endanger the health of natives, animals and plants native to the area. In the beginning, the leachate that forms is black and dark in color and can be oxygen-free and ebullient. On the other hand, the possibility of finding different types of soluble gases in leachate will be very high. Over time, when the leachate comes in contact with air, it undergoes oxygenation and tends to turn brown or yellow due to the presence of iron salts in the solution and suspension. Occasionally, leachate may form a bacterial coating rapidly, often leading to significant growth of Sphaerotilus natans.

The most common method of collecting leachate is to operate it at the same site. When the leachate is treated at the same collection point, the liquid is pumped from the collection tank to the treatment tanks. The leachate can then be mixed with chemical reactants to change the pH of the solution and coagulate and precipitate the solids. Eventually, the concentration of hazardous substances will decrease. Prior to the introduction of this method, treatment was performed in the traditional way, in which a modified form of activated sludge was used to significantly reduce soluble organic matter. Nutrient imbalances can interfere with the stability of biological leachate purification processes. The treated liquid is rarely of sufficient quality to be released into the environment and may be collected in tanks or transferred to a local wastewater treatment plant.

Choosing the right decision depends on the age of the landfill and the water quality constraints that must be achieved after the treatment process is complete. If the leachate formed has high electrical conductivity, chemical or biological treatment will be relatively difficult. Leachate treatment by reverse osmosis is also a limited method and as a result, will cause low leachate recovery and deposition of reverse osmosis membrane. The use of reverse osmosis in leachate treatment is limited by factors such as electrical conductivity, organic matter, and inorganic matter such as barium, silicon, and calcium sulfate. On the other hand, in some old landfills, waste disposal directs leachate to the sewer system, which can cause many problems. Toxic metals in the leachate solution that flow through the wastewater treatment plant concentrate into the wastewater system may pose a number of environmental hazards or damage equipment and pipes.

The use of various membrane technologies for wastewater treatment has been considered by waste management experts for several years. Membrane separation involves the selective filtration of different membranes through pores of different sizes and can include processes such as microfiltration (MF), dynamic membranes (DM), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF), and reverse osmosis (RO). The most important advantage of using the leachate membrane separation method and technology is that it does not require high energy for membrane operation and can be further caused by its simplicity and high efficiency. Dynamic membranes may offer a new approach to leachate management by using sediment as a means of liquid-solid separation. A dynamic membrane is formed as a self-fabricating, regenerating surface from the removal of colloids, solids, and microbial cell particles through a coarse substrate. For this purpose, inexpensive materials such as filter cloths are used as the main support for making dynamic membranes.

Ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) are classified as low pressure (less than 2 bar) processes. Separation by microfilters is done primarily with sieves. However, this process is generally limited to the removal of organic colloids, solids or consumable particles, and bacteria with relatively large pore sizes (approximately 0.1 to 1 μm). Ultra membranes also act mainly through sieving, but have a wider range of separation than microfilters, and rely on 0.01 to 0.1 μm pore size particles and colloids.

We talked earlier about the reverse osmosis process and the limitations of this method. At the same time, nanomembranes can eliminate ions that cause osmotic pressure, so these membranes can be used in processes that have less pressure than reverse osmosis processes. Pre-treatment operations on the resulting effluent or leachate before inserting them into the membrane are necessary in order to achieve the highest efficiency required for leachate management by this model of membranes. At the same time, among the new methods, the use of reverse osmosis (RO) technology has become an effective and promising method. The reverse osmosis process separates pollutants into two streams. Filtrate flow and a stream consisting of highly contaminated concentrates. These streams will eventually be separated by microfiltration at a pressure of 0.5 to 1.4 bar.

With the help of top experts in the field of waste management, Zirsakht Tadbir Arian (ZETA) Company can choose the most appropriate way to treat or manage various waste leachates and complete the best, most efficient, and safest treatment operations using modern equipment in the world. In addition to the mentioned technologies, the company manages waste management with the highest efficiency with the help of various membrane technologies in the world.

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