Waste To Energy

Waste To Energy

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Waste To Energy

Using waste or trash to generate electricity or heat is one form of energy recovery. This energy production is actually a process in which a goal such as converting waste into a source of energy or fuel is pursued. Most waste-to-energy conversion processes and projects generate electricity or heat directly through the combustion of waste and trash or indirectly generate combustion fuels such as methane, ethanol, methanol, or other synthetic fuels. In short, waste-to-energy conversion units are the one that incinerate municipal solid waste, or trash, to turn water into steam in a turbine in order to generate the electricity needed for other units in a power plant. Of course, direct combustion of the gases from the waste in order to operate boilers and turbines and generate electricity is one of the applications of the waste to energy conversion. In other applications, the gases produced during the waste-to-energy conversion process are used to fuel power plants and furnaces.

. In the process of converting waste into energy, materials such as paper, plastic, household waste and wood products that are rich in energy can be used. In a waste-to-energy conversion unit with optimal efficiency, 85% of the generated waste can be treated to generate electricity. The amount of waste that enters the power generation units is reduced by about 87%, so this method is also a suitable method for the environment and not only helps to save energy consumption and production, but also the entry of more waste into the environment is prevented. There are various technologies for this purpose, the most common of which is the incineration of waste in a large furnace to provide the heat needed to supply boiler steam and generate electricity. The mechanism of such a process generally includes the following steps:

Waste from garbage trucks is dumped into a large pit
With the help of a giant claw mounted on a crane, this waste is then removed and dumped into the combustion chamber.
The generated heat is sent to the boiler and converts the water in the boiler into steam
High-pressure steam drives the turbine blades and generates electricity.
An air pollution control system removes pollutants from the combustion gas before it enters the environment through the stack.
Ash is then removed from the boiler and air pollution control system

There are a number of new and emerging technologies that can generate energy from waste or trash without direct combustion. These technologies make it possible to generate more electricity than direct combustion. In general, waste-to-energy conversion processes can be divided into two intentional categories:

Thermal Technologies
Non-thermal technologies

Each of these technologies has its advantages and disadvantages and is used for specific and different conditions. In the following, we will mention the methods that are used and common in each of the mentioned technologies.

Thermal Technologies
  • Gasification (for the production of combustible gases, production of hydrogen or synthetic fuels, and finally the use of these gases in power plants, furnaces, direct combustion for boilers and electricity generation)
  • Thermal depolymerization that lead to the synthesis of synthetic crude oil and this crude oil can be refined in more stages
  • Pyrolysis in order to produce combustible materials such as pyrolysis oil, char and tar
  • Plasma arc gasification process to produce syngas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide for use in fuel cells or to generate electricity required for the plasma arc process, usable vitrified silicate and metal ingots, salt and Sulphur
Non-thermal technologies
  • Anaerobic digestion by using methane-rich biogas
  • Fermentation processes to produce ethanol, lactic acid and hydrogen
  • Mechanical biological treatment that include the following two technologies:
  • Biological processes with the help of anaerobic digestion
  • Biological processes using Refused derived fuels

Zirsakht Tadbir Arian (ZETA) Company, using the most up-to-date methods and technologies for converting waste into energy, and having sufficient knowledge and modern and appropriate equipment, undertakes all the steps mentioned in the process of waste to energy projects based on the needs of consumers.

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